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June 25, 2019. After the middle period of the Qianlong era (1735–96) in the Qing dynasty, population increases and a subsequent need to increase grain yields coupled with greater peasant geographic mobility led to the rapid spread of potato cultivation throughout China, and it was acclimated to local natural conditions. disease destroyed entire potato production of Ireland. This meant that potatoes were barred from large-scale cultivation because the rules allowed only grain to be planted in the open fields. The Incas had many uses for potatoes, which ranged in size from a small nut to an apple and in color from red and gold to blue and black. Hi, I don't think anyone will read this but anyway hi welcome to my channel. To trace the ancestry of the potato, the authors extracted DNA from 88 samples that included landraces, modern cultivars and historical specimens kept in herbaria. Captain Nathanial Butler, then governor of Bermuda, sent two large cedar chests containing potatoes and other vegetables to Francis Wyatt, governor of Virginia at Jamestown. [25], In higher regions of Rwanda, potatoes have become a new staple food crop. By the end of the 17th century the plant was a major crop in Ireland, and by the end of the 18th century it was a major crop in continental Europe, particularly Germany, and in the west of England. The potato was first domesticated in the region of modern-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia[1] between 8000 and 5000 BC. The buds sprout to form clones of the parent plant, allowing growers to vegetatively propagate desired characteristics. Potatoes are thought to have been independently domesticated several times and were largely cultivated in South America by the Incas as early as 1,800 years ago. In 1588, botanist Carolus Clusius made a painting of what he called "Papas Peruanorum" from a specimen in the Low Countries; in 1601 he reported that potatoes were in common use in northern Italy for animal fodder and for human consumption. The plants were from Ireland, so the crop became known as the "Irish potato". The period also coincides with a transformation in the cultivation of potatoes in Europe. To the author's knowledge, this is the oldest herbarium specimen of any plant from which genome-wide DNA data has been successfully retrieved. "Potato specimens from 19th-century South America are very rare. "[5] It had widely replaced the turnip and rutabaga by the 19th century. Scientists at the station even began describing their work using engineering language rather than scientific prose. [22] Potatoes were introduced to Tibet by the 19th century through the trade route from India.[28]. [26] As in other continents, despite its advantages as an anti-famine, high-elevation alternative to grain, potatoes were first resisted by local farmers who believed they were poisonous. Human settlers reached that part of our world around 15 thousand years ago, and Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The earliest archaeologically verified potato tuber remains have been found at the coastal site of Ancón (central Peru), dating to 2500 BC. Aside from actual remains, the potato is also found in the Peruvianarchaeological rec… important parts of world’s cuisine and the fourth-largest food crop in the entire world (following maize, rice and wheat). The potato diffused widely after 1600, becoming a major food resource in Europe and East Asia. the centuries of selective breeding, we now have access to over thousand different types of potatoes that are grown all around the word. As colonialists promoted them as a low-cost food, they were also a symbol of domination. For thousands of years, they were cultivated by the Incas in Peru. Farmers then extract the water from the potato, leaving it much lighter and smaller. Russian scholars thought that modern European potato came from Chile while English researchers suggested an Andean origin. of the French king Marie Antoinette (1755-1793) also contributed by pining potato flowers in her curls, a move that was quickly emulated by noble ladies Often even poor families grew enough extra potatoes to feed a pig that they could sell for cash. Peter Boomgaard looks at the adoption of various root and tuber crops in Indonesia throughout the colonial period and examines the chronology and reasons for progressive adoption of foreign crops: sweet potato (widespread by the 1670s), ("Irish") potato and bengkuang (yam beans) (both locally abundant by the 1780s), and cassava (from the 1860s). The poor should be quite content with this foodstuff. Potatoes have been cultivated for food for more than 2,000 years. The skin varies in colour from brownish white to deep purple; the starchy flesh normally ranges in colour from white to yellow, but it too may be purple. The analysis also suggests that genetic diversity introduced from South America was mixed in later years with wild potato species, used to build resistance to plant pathogens. United States of America was the last major country who adopted potato in their cuisine. Across most of Northern Europe, where open fields prevailed, potatoes were strictly confined to small garden plots because field agriculture was strictly governed by custom that prescribed seasonal rhythms for plowing, sowing, harvesting and grazing animals on fallow and stubble. The potato was first domesticated in the region of modern-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia between 8000 and 5000 BC. When they were first introduced to Europe, tubers would only develop in late autumn as the days shortened, mimicking the day length and temperature cues of their original habitat. The English word "potato" comes from the Spanish word "patata". Marxist Friedrich Engels even declared that the potato was the equal of iron for its "historically revolutionary role". In France, at the end of the 16th century, the potato had been introduced to the Franche-Comté, the Vosges of Lorraine and Alsace. Among their numerous discoveries, potato received a very notable attention, and they brought that plant to Europe between the years of 1570 [17] In 1553, in the book Crónica del Peru, Pedro Cieza de León mentions he saw it in Quito, Popayán and Pasto in 1538. Prior to the 1994 Rwandan genocide, consumption was as high as 153 to 200 kg per year – higher than in any Western European country. The Origin of the Potato The potato was first cultivated in South America between three and seven thousand years ago, though scientists believe they may have grown wild in the region as long as 13,000 years ago. [2] Cultivation of potatoes in South America may go back 10,000 years,[3] but tubers do not preserve well in the archaeological record, making identification difficult. Potato slowly evolved into its current form in the South American Andean highlands between Peru and Bolivia. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Updates? This Kartoffelbefehl (potato order) termed the unfamiliar tuber "a very nutritious food supplement." This shift suggests that farmers may have reintroduced older potato stocks to overcome losses of pathogen-susceptible crops. It served as a cheap source of calories and nutrients that was easy for urban workers to cultivate on small backyard plots. The Incas had many uses for potatoes, which ranged in size from a small nut to an apple and in color from red and gold to blue and black. The potato plant is now grown in many different parts of the world. [19], The potato first spread in Europe for non-food purposes. The genetic patterns of potato distribution indicate that the potato probably originated in the mountainous west-central region of the continent. The English privateer Sir Francis Drake, returning from his circumnavigation, or Sir Walter Raleigh's employee Thomas Harriot,[18] are commonly credited with introducing potatoes into England. Types Modern and traditional uses are both main drivers behind the rational use of potato biodiversity. Potatoes have an incredibly rich and interesting history. The potato thus became an important staple crop in northern Europe. Landraces are still widely produced by smallholder farmers in the center of origin and are a key component of complex production systems that cover multiple agroecologies and production objectives. [19] The Dutch potato-starch industry grew rapidly in the 19th century, especially under the leadership of entrepreneur Willem Albert Scholten (1819–92). The potato is native to the Peruvian-Bolivian Andes and is one of the world’s main food crops. Recently farmers have developed the potato as a cash crop after introducing several new varieties brought back by migrant laborers from Uganda and other varieties from Kenya.[25]. At this latitude, they were adapted to short days. Potatoes were thought to be poisonous or evil, were believed to cause leprosy and syphilis and were even regarded as a dangerous aphrodisiac. A single acre of potatoes and the milk of a single cow was enough to feed a whole Irish family a monotonous but nutritionally adequate diet for a healthy, vigorous (and desperately poor) rural population. Established in 1912 as a Dominion Experimental Station, the station began in the 1930s to concentrate on breeding new varieties of disease-resistant potatoes. Metabolites in above-ground parts of a plant reveal a plant’s successful mutualism with mycorrhizal fungi, A biochemical mechanism controls which nanostructures are formed in calcite-forming microorganisms, Molecular biologists have discovered how the growth of leaves and the aging process of plants are coordinated, UV radiation and rising temperatures increase methane emissions from plants, Rafal M. Gutaker, Clemens L. Weiß, David Ellis, Noelle L. Anglin, Sandra Knapp, José Luis Fernández-Alonso, Salomé Prat & Hernán A. Burbano.

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